- Vitruvius, De Architectura, Book IX, Chapter VI, Paragraph 3: "When we come to natural philosophy, however, Thales of Miletus, Anaxagoras of Clazomenae, Pythagoras of..."
- Ramon Lull, Ars Brevis, Combinatory Wheel, Quarta Figura: [Visual Content]
- Uncategorized, Illustration, Earth and Moon Square the Circle: [Visual Content]
- John Dee, Monas Hieroglyphica, Elemental Monas: [Visual Content]
- Otto van Veen, Quinti Horatii Flacci Emblemata, Emblem III: “Naturam Minerva Perficit”: "Motto: Naturam Minerva Perficit "Minerva Completes Nature" Fortes creantur fortibus, & bonis, Est in juvencis,..."
- Michael Maier, Atalanta Fugiens, Emblem V: Nursing the Toad on the Milk of a Maiden: [Visual Content]
- Gottfried Leibniz, Double Infinity In Pascal And Monad, Gr p555: "The basic almost-nothing, in coming up from nothing to things, since it is the simplest of..."
- Robert Fludd, Ars Memoriae, Imaginary Classical Stage with Five Entrances: [Visual Content]
- Vitruvius, De Architectura, Book VII, Introduction, Paragraph 1: "Among the Seven Sages, Thales of Miletus pronounced for water as the primordial element in..."
- Vitruvius, De Architectura, Book IX, Introduction, Paragraph 2: "What does it signify to mankind that Milo of Croton and other victors of his..."
Natural philosophy was the philosophical study of nature and the physical universe that was dominant before the development of modern science. It can be considered the precursor of natural sciences such as physics.